Difference between revisions of "Mocha User Manual"

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(Before the First Flight)
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The transmitter has two main control sticks: the throttle and yaw stick is on the left, and the pitch and roll stick is on the right. The transmitter also has four switches along the top. From left to right, these are labelled 'D/R B,' 'Ch 6,' 'Ch 5,' and 'D/R A.'
The transmitter has two main control sticks: the throttle and yaw stick is on the left, and the pitch and roll stick is on the right. The transmitter also has four switches along the top. From left to right, these are labelled 'D/R B,' 'Ch 6,' 'Ch 5,' and 'D/R A.'
[[File:Tx.jpg|frame|300x300px|center|Radio transmitter with the switches labeled.]]
[[File:Tx.jpg|center|thumbnail|Radio transmitter with the switches labeled.]]
===Transmitter Switches===
===Transmitter Switches===

Revision as of 15:53, 30 May 2017

Congratulations on purchasing a Quadshot!

The Quadshot uses the Paparazzi UAV project software. Please visit http://paparazzi.enac.fr for more information.

Important.png Please read the entire manual before using the Quadshot. Not adhering to these instructions may result in damage to the Quadshot or serious injury.

Important.png The Quadshot is not a toy. It is not recommended for children under 14 years.


Note about "Modes"

The Mocha comes with a Mode 2 transmitter. This means that the throttle control is on the left and the pitch control on the right.

All uses of the word "mode" from here on are NOT in reference to the different channel mappings for transmitter sticks. This is in reference to the three different flight modes the Quadshot is capable of.

What's in the Box

The Quadshot Mocha includes:

  • 1x Quadshot airframe (wing with four motor controllers, two servos, one 2.4GHz RC receiver, and Lia board with Aspirin IMU)
  • 2x Winglets
  • 4x Pylons
  • 3x 8045 normal-rotation propellers
  • 3x 8045R reverse-rotation propellers
  • 1x Lithium-polymer flight battery
  • 1x small box containing Lithium-polymer flight battery charger and power cable (110-240V, 50/60 Hz)
  • 1x foam box containing:
    • 2.4 GHz RC transmitter
    • USB transmitter programming cable
    • Receiver bind plug,
    • Transmitter software CD
  • 1x parts bag containing:
    • 4x motors
    • 1x cyanoacrylate glue
    • 1x small hardware bag containing:
      • 4x motor clips
      • 4x propeller savers
      • 4x propeller saver rubber bands,
      • 8x propeller saver M3 machine screws

Quadshot Mocha box contents from left to right. Top row: Parts bag; 2x winglets; battery compartment lid; 3x 8045 normal- and 3x 8045R reverse-rotation propellers; lithium-polymer battery charger; lithium-polymer flight battery. Middle row: Quadshot airframe with electronics enclosure lid open. Bottom row: 4x pylons. NOT SHOWN: Radio transmitter foam box.
Parts bag content: 4x motors (in bubble-wrap bags); cyanoacrylate glue; small hardware bag contents: 4x propeller savers; 8x propeller saver M3 machine screws; 4x motor clips; 4x propeller saver rubber bands.
Radio transmitter foam box contents: 2.4 GHz RC transmitter; transmitter software CD; USB transmitter programming cable; receiver bind plug.

The technical specifications of the Quadshot are listed here.

Basic Terms

The three ways of rotating an aircraft are called pitch, roll, and yaw. Starting with an aircraft in level forward flight:

  • Pitch is rotating around a horizontal line connecting the wingtips. When aircraft dive down to the ground or pull up to gain altitude, they are changing pitch. You pitch your head up and down by nodding 'yes' up and down.
  • Roll is rotating around a line connecting the nose of the aircraft to the tail. You roll your head by touching an ear to your shoulder (or by doing a cartwheel).
  • Yaw is rotating around a vertical line to change the compass direction the aircraft is flying in. You yaw your head by shaking it 'no' left and right.

Given that the Quadshot can both hover like a helicopter and pitch over onto the wing and fly like an airplane, it isn't always obvious what to call the "front" or the "top." For sanity's sake, we named the parts of the Quadshot as if it were flying like an airplane. Therefore:

  • The Front of the Quadshot is the end with the motors and the propellers, i.e., towards the leading edge of the wing.
  • The Rear is the opposite end, i.e., towards the trailing edge of the wing, or the end where the black plastic landing feet protrude from the pylons.
  • The Top is the flat surface of the wing the battery and brain doors are built into. The top pylons are mounted closer to each other. The top LEDs are blue.
  • The Bottom is the opposite side - the bottom pylons are mounted farther apart from each other. The bottom LEDs are white.
  • The Port or Left side has RED LEDs.
  • The Starboard or Right side has GREEN LEDs.

Getting Started

Charge the Flight Battery

The Mocha includes a lithium polymer flight battery, which allows for flight times of about 6 to 15 minutes, depending on conditions, payload and throttle settings. The flight battery must be charged before the first flight.

The Mocha comes with a battery charger that plugs into a wall socket. Plug the battery into the charger via the small white balance tap connector, and the charger will automatically charge and balance the cell voltages. A full charge can take up to 3 hours to complete.

To charge the battery:

  • After flight, allow the battery to cool to room temperature before charging.
  • Place the charger and battery on a heat resistant surface.
  • Plug in the charger to a wall outlet. The three indicator lights will glow green.
  • Plug in the battery to the charger with the white balance connector. The lights will turn red if the battery is not charged. The lights will turn green and the charger will stop charging as each cell charges to full capacity.
  • pics of charging process

If the lights begin to flash, unplug the battery from the charger and unplug the charger from the socket. Restart the charging process.

Do not leave the battery unattended while charging.


Overcharging the battery, or charging a damaged or hot battery, may result in a fire! Do not charge batteries above 120 F (49 C) or below 40 F (4 C)! Only charge the fight battery with a charger designed for lithium polymer batteries - using an incorrect charger may result in a fire! If the battery pack balloons or expands, stop use immediately! Always store batteries in a fireproof container!

Install the Propeller Savers

The propeller savers, a.k.a. prop savers, use rubber O-rings (installed later) to hold the propeller to the motor firmly in flight, while allowing it to tip off-axis if it runs into something. This can help prevent damaging the propeller.

Important green.png The pylons and motors are identical and interchangeable.

QS1 kit 103.jpg

Locate the four dark-anodized prop savers and eight long Phillips-head M3 machine screws. The prop savers have a 5mm-diameter end and a 7mm-diameter end to accomodate different propellers. In the photo, the upper two prop savers show the 5mm diameter end. The lower two show the 7mm diameter end. Use the 5mm end with Quadshot propellers.

QS1 kit 157.jpg

Note that the motor shafts have a flat area ground into them.

QS1 kit 104.jpg

Thread two machine screws onto each prop saver. The prop savers are aluminum, so use caution to avoid cross-threading. Slip one prop saver over each motor shaft with the smaller (5mm diameter) end facing out away from the motor. Align the prop saver so the end of one screw is sitting on the shaft's flat area. Lightly tightening the screw by hand as you slip the prop saver on will help you find the flat.

QS1 kit 105.jpg

Use a Phillips-head screwdriver to tighten both screws down so they lock against the motor shaft.

QS1 kit 158.jpg

Check each motor for loose shaft set screws by holding the motor bell (rotor) in one hand and trying to rotate the motor shaft by turning the prop saver. If the shaft rotates, tighten the set screw using a 1.25mm (0.050") allen wrench.

QS1 kit 159.jpg

Check each motor for excess play between the motor bell (rotor) and the shaft. Holding the blue shaft in one hand and the silver bell in the other, pull apart lightly. There should be 1mm or less of play. If there is excess play, see the Motor Adjustments section below for adjustment information.

Important.png If the motor bell is loose, it can be pulled away by the propeller in flight, which can cause the motor to lose power and/or stop spinning.

Repeat with the remaining prop savers and motors.

Important yellow.png Do not install the propellers yet.

Install the Motors

QS1 kit 026.jpg

On each pylon, clear the motor clip holes and remove any foam flashing from the motor clip cutout areas and inside the motor mount tube.

QS1 kit 027.jpg

QS1 kit 028.jpg

Hold a motor with the mounting slot pointing up in one hand and a pylon with the spar clip down in the other hand. Rotate the slot in the motor and the holes in the pylon until they match alignment as seen in the picture.

QS1 kit 029.jpg

Insert the motor into the pylon until the the slot in the motor is aligned with the pylon hole. Make sure the wires exiting the motor are not crushed between the motor and pylon. Gently bend the wires out of the way if necessary. The motor can go too far into the tube. The motor clip will not install correctly if the motor is in the tube all of the way.

QS1 kit 031.jpg

Insert a motor clip so that the straight side goes into motor mount tube hole, through the slot in the motor, and out the other hole. The bent part of the clip will grip the underside of the motor mount tube. Remember, the motor will not mount correctly if it is pushed all of the way into the pylon.

QS1 kit 034.jpg

Fully inserted clip, front view.

QS1 kit 033.jpg

Fully inserted clip, rear view.

QS1 kit 032.jpg

Fully inserted clip, top view.

Important.png If you are having trouble inserting the clip, remove the motor and try again. The motor may be damaged if you try and rotate it while it is inside the motor mount.

5. Repeat with the remaining pylons, motors, and motor clips.

Install the Pylons

The pylons on the Quadshot are not permanently attached; in the event of a crash the pylons may pop out, which can help reduce damage to the Quadshot.

To install the pylons, place one hand under the pylon socket, line up the clip on the bottom of the pylon with the spar, and press the pylon straight down onto the spar until it clicks into place. You should a hear a pop as it locks in. Pull on the pylon straight out to make sure that it is locked in. The four pylons are identical and interchangeable.

Pylon attach 1.jpg

Make sure motor wires lie in their channels.

Pylon attach 2.jpg

Line up the pylon clip with the spar.

Pylon attach 3.jpg

Another perspective.

Pylon attach 4.jpg

Place one hand under the pylon socket, and press the pylon straight down onto the spar until it clicks into place.

Connect the Motor Controllers

Each motor is controlled by an Electronic Speed Controller, or ESC. ESCs can drive the motors both forward and backward, so it is critical to check the spin direction before flight.

QS1 motor-ESC 001.jpg

To connect each motor...

QS1 motor-ESC 002.jpg

...plug in the male bullet connector on each motor wire...

QS1 motor-ESC 003.jpg

...into a female bullet connector on the ESC.

QS1 motor-ESC 004.jpg

For now, it does not matter which wire is connected to which - motor spin direction will be checked and corrected later.

Important.png Do not mount the propellers yet. You must first test the motor spin direction. This is described under Before the First Flight.

Attach the Winglets

Important green.png The winglets are identical and are interchangeable.

1. Using a thumbtack, carefully poke a hole in the tip of the cyanoacrylate glue bottle to allow glue to flow.

Important.png Cyanoacrylate glue is an eye irritant. Bonds skin in seconds. Contains cyanoacrylate ester. This adhesive gives a virtually immediate, strong bond: apply only to surfaces to be bonded. Do not get adhesive on your skin or other parts of your body, or that of others. In case of body contact, flush with water. Seek medical attention for any eye or internal contact.

QS1 winglet 01.jpg

2. Check the fit of the winglets onto the ends of the wings...

QS1 winglet 03.jpg

...and note how the winglet keys onto the end of the wing.

QS1 winglet 05.jpg

3. Working quickly on one winglet at a time, apply a thin coat of the CA glue provided onto the winglet as shown.

QS1 winglet 04.jpg

4. Press and hold the winglet onto the end of the wing for 15-30 seconds to allow the glue to adhere. Repeat with the other winglet.

Install the Transmitter Batteries

The Mocha radio transmitter requires 8 AA-type batteries (not included). Remove the door on the back of the radio transmitter and install 8 AA batteries in the directions indicated. The power light will illuminate green, orange, or red when the transmitter is turned on. Change the batteries when the light turns red.

Important.png Do not fly the Quadshot when the transmitter battery light is red. You may lose control and crash!

Quadshot Radio Transmitter System

Before flying the Quadshot, first get familiar with the radio transmitter. The transmitter uses frequency-hopping and spread-spectrum techniques and transmits at a frequency of 2.4GHz, which make it robust against interference from other devices. The transmitter is programmable via the included USB cable and software. See the transmitter manual for more information.

The transmitter has two main control sticks: the throttle and yaw stick is on the left, and the pitch and roll stick is on the right. The transmitter also has four switches along the top. From left to right, these are labelled 'D/R B,' 'Ch 6,' 'Ch 5,' and 'D/R A.'

Radio transmitter with the switches labeled.

Transmitter Switches

The switches change the way the Quadshot responds to the control sticks.

Ch. 6: The Mode Switch

The Channel 6 switch is on the left front face of the transmitter just above the left stick and switches between flight modes. From top to bottom, the switch settings are:

  • Mode 1 - "Helicopter" mode. Used for takeoff, hover, horizontal flight, recovery, and landing.
  • Mode 2 - "Trainer airplane" mode. Used for cruising forward flight.
  • Mode 3 - "Aerobatic airplane" mode. Used for aerobatics.

Ch. 5: The Stick Sensitivity Switch

The Channel 5 switch is on the right front face of the transmitter just above the right stick. This switch changes how sensitive the control sticks are to small movements. This is typically referred to in RC aircraft as 'exponential' or 'expo.' From top to bottom, the switch settings are:

  • Expo 1 - most sensitive. If a control stick is moved halfway, the Quadshot will react with half of maximum authority. If the stick is moved all the way, the Quadshot will react with maximum authority.
  • Expo 2 - less sensitive. If a control stick is moved halfway, the Quadshot will react with less than half of maximum authority. If a stick is moved all the way, the Quadshot will still react with maximum authority.
  • Expo 3 - least sensitive. If a control stick is moved halfway, the Quadshot will react with even less authority than Setting 2. If a stick is moved all the way, the Quadshot will still react with maximum authority.

Beginning pilots may find that using Expo 2 or Expo 3 makes the Quadshot easier to fly, since it will not react as quickly to smaller stick movements.

The D/R A and D/R B Switches

The D/R A and D/R B switches are usually not used by the Mocha, and have no effect on the controls out of the box. D/R stands for Dual Rates, and can be programmed to change the effective range of the control sticks. Please see the Mocha transmitter manual for more information.

Important.png We have learnt that a few transmitter units have active D/R switches. Therefore, just for safety, we ask that you ensure both D/R switches are in the down position, i.e., away from the front of the transmitter.

Transmitter Main Control Sticks

The main control sticks commands the Quadshot to move. Small stick movements can have a big effect, so be conservative until you get used to the controls!

Important green.png Each main stick has two "trim tabs" - one just to the inside of the stick that can be adjusted up and down, and one just below the stick that can be adjusted left and right. You may need to adjust these to leave Safe Mode, or to fine-tune the Quadshot's "hands off" flying behavior.

As mentioned above in the Basic Terms section, what constitutes the "top" and "front" of the Quadshot aren't as obvious as they are on regular airplanes and helicopters. This also means that "roll" and "yaw" aren't as obvious either.

To clear things up, here is a photo of the Quadshot transmitter with the yaw stick highlighted:

Transmitter with the yaw axis highlighted.

When hovering (Mode 1), with the propellers pointing up at the sky and the top lids facing towards you, imagine that it is helicopter with the nose pointed away from you. If a yaw (spin) right input is made, the helicopter nose will point to the right. If a yaw left input is made, the nose of the helicopter will point to the left. It is the same with the Quadshot.

Quadshot HOVER mode Front-to-Back view with nose and tail direction.

In forward flight (Modes 2 and 3, and Flight Mode 1 when pitched over as described below in Mode 1: Hovering and Forward Flight), the Quadshot wing should be thought of as an airplane wing, with the nose of the airplane towards the propellers, and the tail towards the landing feet. If a yaw right input is made, the Airplane nose yaws right and vice-versa.

Quadshot FORWARD flight modes Top-Down view with nose and tail direction.

We have found that for all but "dyed-in-the-wool" pilots that fly only helicopters or only airplanes, this is actually very intuitive, and simpler than it seems. This is because while roll and yaw change places with respect to the Quadshot as it is flying around, they actually stay the same with respect to the pilot standing on the ground! In other words, the right stick always moves the Quadshot to its left or right, and the left stick will always rotate the Quadshot to its left or right, regardless of what it has to do to accomplish the movement.

Hovering Flight (Helicopter) Controls

Moving the left stick up and down
throttles the motors up and down.

Tx throttle.jpg
QS 3.jpg
Quadshot top view showing throttle input reaction.

Moving the left stick left and right
yaws (spins) the Quadshot left and right as if it were a helicopter.

Tx yaw.jpg
QS 4.jpg
Quadshot rear view (hovering above) showing helicopter yaw input reaction.

Moving the right stick up and down
pitches the Quadshot forward and back.

Tx pitch.jpg
QS 2.jpg
Quadshot top view showing pitch input reaction.

Moving the right stick left and right
rolls the Quadshot left and right as if it were a helicopter.

Tx roll.jpg
QS 1.jpg
Quadshot top view showing helicopter roll input reaction.

Forward Flight (Airplane) Controls

Note: The controls are the same for forward flight in Mode 1, Mode 2, and Mode 3.

Moving the left stick up and down
throttles the motors up and down.

Tx throttle.jpg
QS 3.jpg
Quadshot top view showing throttle input reaction.

Moving the left stick left and right
yaws (spins) the Quadshot left and right as if it were an airplane.

Tx yaw.jpg
QS 1a.jpg
Quadshot top view showing airplane yaw input reaction.

Moving the right stick up and down
pitches the Quadshot up and down.

Tx pitch.jpg
QS 2.jpg
Quadshot top view showing pitch input reaction.

Moving the right stick left and right
rolls the Quadshot left and right as if it were an airplane.

Tx roll.jpg
QS 4.jpg
Quadshot rear view (flying away) showing airplane roll input reaction.

Before Each Flight

Check Pylons

Check that the pylons are locked in place by pressing each pylon into the wing. If you hear a click, the pylon was not in all of the way.

Check Transmitter Batteries

Turn on the transmitter and check the power light:

A green light means that the batteries are new.
An orange light means they are in need of replacement soon. It is not recommended to fly with an orange light.
A red light means they need to be replaced.

Check Flight Battery

Check that the battery in the plane is fully charged.

Plug in the battery to the charger. If any of the lights turn red, it is not fully charged.
When installed in the Quadshot and the lights continue to flash after the IMU is stabilized and the safe mode is disengaged, it is time to charge the battery.

Install Flight Battery

To install the flight battery, remove the battery compartment lid, marked by a battery symbol, by pressing down on the top edge.

Place the battery in the compartment with the main leads (the two biggest wires with the yellow connector) in the top right of the battery compartment.

Wrap the hook and loop strap around the battery and secure tightly.

The Quadshot should be placed upright on a level surface when plugging in the flight battery and not held by hand. Connect the battery to turn on the Quadshot. After plugging in the battery, the Quadshot should be left untouched while the LEDs show a fast double blink. This is to allow the sensors to initialize. If the Quadshot is moved, initialization can take more time or be prevented from completing correctly. Moving the Quadshot during initialization can cause erratic flight or crashes until the power is cycled.

The initialization is finished once the LEDs stop showing a fast double blink with the transmitter on. See LED Codes below for information on all of the blink patterns. It is not necessary to leave safe mode at this time. After the LEDs have stopped the fast double blink, turn off the transmitter and put the wires in the recess above the battery. The lid will not close properly if the battery connector is placed above the battery strap. The connector is designed to fit to the left of the battery strap. If the fit is tight, pushing the battery as far left as possible helps.

Installed flight battery on a Quadshot with the battery compartment lid open.

Replace the battery lid by placing the bottom tabs in first and then by pushing on the top to secure it in place.

Leave Safe Mode: Understanding the Blinking Lights

When the Quadshot is first turned on, it is in a “safe” mode, which means the motors will not spin and the LEDs (lights) will blink. To leave Safe Mode, these conditions must be met:

1. The transmitter is on.

  • If the transmitter is off, the LEDs will blink "SOS" in Morse code: a rapid repeating sequence of 3 short blinks, 3 longer blinks, and 3 short blinks.

2. The Quadshot has been on and sitting still for more than about 20 seconds, which allows its sensors to align to gravity.

  • The LEDs will repeat a fast double-blink pattern during this period.

3. The Mode Switch is in the highest, or Mode 1, position.

  • The LEDs will repeat a slow single blink if the Mode switch is not in Mode 1.

4. The left stick on the transmitter is in the bottom-center position, and the left stick trims (throttle and yaw) are adjusted properly.

5. The right stick is in the center position, and the right stick trims (roll and pitch) are adjusted properly..

When these conditions are met, the LEDs will stop blinking and remain on. Otherwise, the Quadshot LEDs will blink a pattern to alert you to what is preventing it from leaving Safe Mode.

Important green.png Follow the directions in the table below to learn how to leave Safe Mode. Note that the first time you power on the Quadshot, you may have to adjust the four transmitter trim tabs, which are just to the side of and just below the main control sticks.
Safe Mode LED Blink Codes and Solutions
Condition Solution
SOS (Fast sequence of three short, three longer, and three short blinks) Transmitter is not on Switch transmitter ON
Fast double-blink IMU sensors are aligning Wait
One slow blink Mode switch is not in Mode 1 Set 3-position Flight Mode Switch to Mode 1
Two slow blinks Throttle not at zero and/or throttle trim not low enough Lower throttle stick completely. If condition continues lower throttle trim
Three slow blinks Roll stick not centered and/or roll trim adjusted Release right stick to allow it to center. If condition continues, adjust roll trim left or right
Four slow blinks Pitch stick not centered and/or roll trim adjusted Release right stick to allow it to center. If condition continues, adjust pitch trim up or down
Five slow blinks Yaw stick not centered and/or roll trim adjusted Release left stick to allow it to center. If condition continues, adjust yaw trim left or right

A complete listing of all LED blink codes is given below.

Before the First Flight

Check Elevon Linkages

Check that the pushrods (the wire connecting the servos and elevons) are fastened tightly by the screws in the elevons and does not slide freely. They may have loosened during shipping!

Check that the elevons are straight when the Quadshot is initially powered on.


Check Motor Spin Directions

Depending on how it is connected, the motor controller can spin the motor in either direction. However, it is critical that each motor spins the correct direction. Perform this check after any time a motor may have been disconnected from its motor controller.

Important.png Attempting to fly with any motor spinning the wrong way will result in erratic flight and loss of control. You must check the motor spin directions after connecting the motors to the motor controllers.

Perform this test without the propellers installed:

Slowly throttle up the motors until they just start spinning.
When viewed from above, motors A1 and B2 spin clockwise while A2 and B1 spin counterclockwise.
Front view motors.png

If a motor is spinning the wrong way, switch any two of the wires running between the motor and motor controller - that is:

Disconnect any two motor wires from the controller
Plug the first motor wire into the second controller connector
Plug the second motor wire into the first controller connector
Repeat the motor spin test until you are sure that all four motors are spinning the correct directions.
Important.png Disconnect the flight battery until you are ready to fly.

Install Propellers

The Quadshot uses two reverse-spin propellers and two normal-spin propellers. The propellers are labelled near their center hubs. Reverse-spin propellers are labelled 8045R and normal-spin propellers are labelled 8045. When installed correctly, the lettering near the propeller hubs is on the front of each propeller (facing away from the motors).

Reverse-spin propellers are used on motors A1 and B2.
Normal-spin propellers are used on motors A2 and B1.

Important green.png The reverse propellers supplied with the Quadshot are now GREEN - the normal ones are BLACK.
A reverse-spin propeller.
Correct propeller placement and motor spin directions.

To install the propellers:

Prop attach 1.jpg

Place the propeller on the prop saver with the lettering up.

Prop attach 3.jpg

Grasp the motor by the chrome ring with one hand.

Prop attach 2.jpg

Loop the rubber O-ring under one screw,
over the propeller, and around the other screw.

Prop attach 4.jpg

Installed propeller.

Flying the Quadshot


The Quadshot takes off vertically, like a helicopter. before it can fly forward like a plane. Use only Mode 1 to take off, and not Mode 2 or Mode 3. Use a flat and level surface for take off. Always take off from the ground and not a table or from someone's hand. Always place the Quadshot with the motors facing up.

The Quadshot has a lot of reserve power when a camera is not installed. Because of this, takeoff requires very little throttle, somewhere in the range of 10 - 15%.

Important.png If the Quadshot ever tips over or lands on the motors/propellers, immediately reduce the throttle to zero or the motors and ESCs will be damaged.

Smooth takeoffs take some practice - adding throttle too slowly can cause the Quadshot to skitter along the ground, where it might catch on something and tip over. On the other hand, adding throttle too quickly causes the Quadshot to rise very quickly, and you may lose control.

To take off, leave Safe Mode as described above. Slowly raise the throttle until all four propellers just begin to spin. Then, add enough extra throttle (perhaps 5-10%) to cause the Quadshot to 'pop' a short distance up into the air, and then reduce throttle a bit to settle into a stable hover. Above all, don't overreact - the Quadshot can stabilize itself as long as you give it enough throttle to stay in the air, but if you cut the throttle completely, gravity will win!

Once out of Safe Mode but before takeoff, don't move the other control sticks, since this would tell the Quadshot to pitch, roll, or yaw while on the ground.

Mode 1: Hovering and Forward Flight

In Mode 1, the Quadshot will maintain a hover attitude when no control inputs are made. It will ascend and descend depending on where the throttle is set. It will NOT stay in place if there is any wind. It will drift with the wind and only maintain a straight-up orientation.

If at any time while in Mode 1 the sticks are released, the Quadshot will return to a straight up hover orientation as quickly as possible. This is useful for emergency situations, such as if you are unsure which way the Quadshot is facing, or are about to crash. It is best to perform this with the throttle set slightly above hover power. If the throttle is set too high, the Quadshot may not have enough reserve power remaining to recover. If the throttle is set below hover, the Quadshot will immediately descend.

As the right stick is pushed forward in Mode 1 the Quadshot will pitch forward and fly "on the wing" like an airplane. Pushing the stick all of the way forwards will cause the Quadshot to fly horizontally. Because the Quadshot has a symmetric airfoil, the wing does not generate any lift when horizontal, so the Quadshot will descend, even at high throttle. To maintain or gain altitude, the wing must not be pitched all of the way over.

Centering pitch will cause the Quadshot to return to a vertical orientation.

Pulling the right stick back has the same effect, but the Quadshot will pitch backward and fly "on the wing" upside-down.

While flying on the wing in Mode 1, the yaw and roll controls will gradually change from helicopter to airplane as discussed above.

Mode 2: Forward Flight

While in Mode 2, the Quadshot will fly with its nose rotated eight degrees above horizontal unless given other control inputs (in other words, its angle of attack will be eight degrees). This generates enough lift for general flying. The Quadshot will NOT maintain altitude or direction - it will ascend and descend depending on where the throttle is set and will drift with the wind. It will only try to maintain a level orientation.

The Quadshot will also make coordinated turns in Mode 2 when roll (right stick left and right) is used. This means that the Quadshot will automatically add in a small amount of upward pitch, and yaw in the same direction as the turn. This makes turns are more graceful and require less input. Some coordination is still required in certain situations, such as at high angles of attack or high speeds.

To switch to Mode 2, first fly up to at least 15-20 meters (50-65 feet). Point the Quadshot straight up as if in hover and set the throttle such that the Quadshot is hovering or rising slowly. Flip the Mode Switch to Mode 2, or center position, and the Quadshot will automatically transition into forward flight.

It is recommended to reduce the throttle a small amount upon switching to Mode 2. The Quadshot requires less throttle to fly on the wing than to hover. Because of this, the Quadshot will fly very fast after transitioning into Mode 2 if the throttle is not reduced.

In general, make turns in Mode 2 by primarily using the roll stick (left and right on the right stick), and gain or lose altitude by primarily increasing or decreasing the throttle. Use small amounts of the pitch stick (up and down on the right stick) to adjust altitude and counteract wind.

If at any time while in Mode 2 the sticks are released the Quadshot will return to level flight. However, it will take a few seconds for the Quadshot to level off if it is descending rapidly. If you do not pull up, the Quadshot may still crash.

While in Mode 2, the Quadshot will not pitch up more than vertical and will not roll more than 90 degrees.

If at any time the Mode Switch is set to Mode 1 while in Mode 2, the Quadshot will immediately return to hover orientation. However, do not throttle up the motors much higher than what it takes to hover or they may not have enough remaining power to recover from a bad situation. This is again very useful for emergency situations, such as if the Quadshot were about to crash.

Mode 3: Aerobatics

While in Mode 3, the Quadshot will try to maintain whatever orientation you put it in. It will not recover from upset situations or coordinate turns, and will allow you to command loops, rolls, and spins.

To switch to Mode 3, flip the Mode Switch to Mode 3, the lowest position. There will be no visible change to the Quadshot orientation once Mode 3 is activated.

Remember: the Quadshot flies without returning to a neutral attitude when in Mode 3.

If at any time the Mode Switch is set to Mode 1 while in Mode 3, the Quadshot will immediately return to hover orientation.


The best method to descend quickly is to fully pitch forwards or backwards in Mode 1 with the throttle low. As the Quadshot approaches the ground, release pitch slowly and throttle up to a hover throttle setting at the same time.

  • 3 pics: hover high alt, push over mid alt, hover low alt

The Quadshot can also descend vertically in Mode 1 from a hover. It can appear to be out of control during a quick vertical descent. This is because the airflow over the wing is reversed, causing the elevons to have the opposite effect of the desired controls. However, the motors overpower this effect.

To descend vertically, use a throttle position just below hover and descend slowly.

One method of landing is to descend as slowly as possible while maintaining position to avoid catching the landing gear on something and tipping over the Quadshot. This can be difficult as the Quadshot approaches the ground; the air becomes more turbulent the lower the Quadshot gets.

Another method is to get the Quadshot in a stable hover a few inches above the landing spot and kill the throttle. This will drop the Quadshot right on target and minimize the chance of breaking a propeller if it tips over, since the motors will not be turning when it lands. However, this method can potentially be damaging in other ways if used on a hard surface, such as pavement.

Important.png If the Quadshot ever tips over or lands on the motors/propellers, immediately reduce the throttle to zero or the motors and ESCs will be damaged.

Low Voltage Alert

The Quadshot comes programmed with a low voltage alert. When the battery drops to a low voltage level, the Quadshot will flash its LEDs and 'waggle' its wings. You will see the Quadshot roll back and forth a small amount about four times per second. Sets of waggles will happen four times, about five seconds apart. During this time there is enough battery capacity remaining to fly the Quadshot nearer to you and land. If you see the Quadshot repeat the waggle warning a second time, you should land immediately! If you see the Quadshot repeat the warning a third time, you will soon lose power!

Important.png Over-discharging the battery may damage it. Do not attempt to fly the Quadshot back to you after seeing a second warning - descend and land immediately.

The Quadshot is compatible with many hobby lithium-polymer battery monitors that beep loudly when the battery is low. Typically these connect to the white battery balance connector, and will fit inside the electronics enclosure with the beeper taped or glued to align with the provided hole. Follow the manufacturer's directions for use.

  • pic

Flying With a Camera

Only attempt flying with a camera once you are comfortable flying the Quadshot.

Camera Installation

Important.png Do not use a camera that weighs more than 7 ounces or 200 grams. If a heavier camera is used, the possibility of a crash is much higher. The lighter the camera, the better the Quadshot flies. The Quadshot is mainly controlled by the motors. If a high throttle setting is needed to hover, there is little motor power remaining to control the Quadshot.

To install a camera, remove the battery lid. Locate the supplied ¼”-20 bolt and insert it into the hole located at the bottom-center of the battery compartment. Using a coin or flat-bladed screwdriver, mount your camera to the bottom side of the Quadshot, opposite the battery door. Cameras should be attached so they are snug but not overly tight, which could damage the Quadshot or camera.

Once installed, rotate the propellers by hand and make sure that they do not hit the camera. If they do, the camera must be reoriented so that the propellers do not hit the camera. A camera this far forward also greatly impacts the stability of the Quadshot. Avoid mounting a camera that adds a lot of weight ahead or behind the camera mounting bolt.

Flying With a Camera

With a camera installed, vertical takeoff will require you to pull back on the right stick a small amount (pitching the Quadshot up) to counteract the camera's weight. If this is not done, the Quadshot will fly forward as it leaves the ground. However, once hovering, the Quadshot will compensate for the camera's weight and maintain level orientation without added pitch commands.

In general, the Quadshot will require more throttle, pitch up, or a combination of both to maintain level flight due to the added weight. This is most pronounced during the transition from Mode 1 to Mode 2.

Be aware that excess payload weight will cause the battery to drain more quickly and the motors and motor controllers to heat up. Continued flight with a heavy payload will damage the battery, motors, and/or motor controllers.

GoPro: Mounting a GoPro camera requires using its case and the tripod mount. The case is adjustable in pitch. If the camera is tilted too far forward or back when mounted to the Quadshot, the balance of the aircraft will be upset. We suggest a maximum tilt of about 45 degrees up or down from horizontal when the Quadshot is flying horizontally forward. Any more than this may make the Quadshot difficult to or impossible to fly.

Removing Pylons

To remove the pylons, first disconnect the motor wires that connect it to the ESC. Then tip the pylon to the side until you feel it pop loose and pull out. Note that excessively installing and removing the pylons will cause their clip to wear and the pylon to attach more loosely.

If desired, the pylons can be glued in permanently. Lightly sand the square carbon spar and the mating foam and plastic surfaces on each pylon before gluing with medium or thick (gap-filling) cyanoacrylate (CA) glue.


Replacing Propellers

Replace a propeller if it is bent, nicked, cracked or broken. Do not mix propellers of different brands, makes, or dimensions. The propellers that come with the Quadshot are 8 inches in diameter, have a pitch of 4.5 inches, and have 5mm center holes. The prop saver can be flipped over to accomodate propellers with 7mm center holes.

Foam and Plastic Repairs

The Quadshot is made out of Expanded PolyOlefin (EPO) foam. It is recommended that you use either medium viscosity CyanoAcrylate (CA, super glue) with a catalyst (kicker), 3M 4693H contact cement, two-part epoxy, or Gorilla Glue to repair foam on the Quadshot. It is recommended that you repair the plastic with either epoxy or CA. For small dents, creases and crushed foam, pouring boiling water on or steaming the damaged foam can help restore it to its original shape, to some extent.

Motor Adjustment

In the event of a crash, the motors are usually the first things to hit the ground. Check the motors to make sure they are clean and free of foreign objects, rotate freely, and don't have bent motor shafts. Check the motor shaft adjustment by gently pulling on the motor bell housing away from the rest of the motor (e.g., in the direction of flight). There should be little to no play. If the motor bell rises more than 1mm (about 1/32") above the rest of the motor, then it must be adjusted or the motor will no longer rotate with full power or speed, and may stop rotating completely in mid-flight.

To adjust the motor shaft, remove the propeller, disconnect the motor from the motor controller, remove the motor mount clip, and remove the motor from the pylon.

Loosen the set screw at the top of the chrome bell by one turn using a .050" hex key. Do not remove this screw. Place the rear end of the motor on a hard surface and gently press down on the chrome bell until it stops. Do not compress the parts together any further. Do not use a sudden, jerking motion. Check to make sure that there is no more than 1mm of movement. Re-tighten the set screw at the top of the bell.

Post-Crash Checklists

After a minor crash make sure to check that:

The pylons are fully locked in by pushing them into their sockets.
The propellers are properly mounted and not bent or broken.
The winglets are not loose.
The battery is secured tightly by the strap.

After a major crash also make sure to check that:

The motors are relatively straight in the pylons.
The motors are not out of adjustment.
The motor mounts are not broken.
The pylons are not overly loose when connected to the spar.
The hinges are not ripped.
The electronics frame is glued to the foam.
The battery is not damaged.
The motors are connected to the motor controllers.

If a motor is disconnected from its motor controller and/or a propeller is replaced, check that:

The motors spin in the correct directions.
The correct propeller is installed on each motor.

Flying Tips

Each time before you fly:

  • Check that the battery in the plane is fully charged.
  • Check that the transmitter batteries are fresh.
  • Check that the pylons are fully seated and secured to the wing.

Fly the Quadshot in a wide open area. Do not fly near trees, poles, streets, wires, buildings, or people. Determine local laws and ordinances before choosing a location to fly the Quadshot.

It is not recommended to fly the Quadshot at more than 75% power when a camera is not attached. The motors are what control the Quadshot and at higher and higher speeds, the motors have less and less control authority which makes it harder to fly and stabilize.

Dual Rates

Dual rates are not recommended. Changing the dual rates will change the maximum allowed pitch and airplane yaw/quadcopter roll angles. For instance, if the pitch rates are lowered to 50%, the Quadshot will only be able to pitch forward by 45 degrees from hover when in Mode 1.


It is not recommended to use exponential if you are to use your own computer radio as there are already exponential settings coded into Lia.

LED Codes

When the flight battery is first connected, the Quadshot is in Safe Mode and will not spin its motors. To alert you to any conditions preventing the Quadshot from leaving Safe Mode, the LEDs blink in different patterns. In these blinks, the LEDs are off and blinked on for a short time before returning to off:

Safe Mode LED Blinks
Condition Solution
SOS (Fast sequence of three short, three longer, and three short blinks) Transmitter is not on Switch transmitter ON
Double-blink IMU sensors are aligning Wait (process takes ~20 sec)
One slow blink Mode switch is not in Mode 1 Set 3-position Flight Mode Switch to Mode 1
Two slow blinks Throttle not at zero and/or throttle trim not low enough Lower throttle stick completely. If condition continues lower throttle trim (left stick vertical slider)
Three slow blinks Roll stick not centered and/or roll trim adjusted Release right stick to allow it to center. If condition continues, adjust roll trim (right stick horizontal slider) left or right
Four slow blinks Pitch stick not centered and/or roll trim adjusted Release right stick to allow it to center. If condition continues, adjust pitch trim (right stick vertical slider) up or down
Five slow blinks Yaw stick not centered and/or roll trim adjusted Release left stick to allow it to center. If condition continues, adjust yaw trim (left stick horizontal slider) left or right
Continuous rapid blinks after power-up The IMU could not align to gravity Power cycle the Quadshot

Once all conditions for leaving Safe Mode are met, the LEDs will stop blinking and remain on. When the flight battery gets low, the Quadshot will flash its LEDs to alert you. In these flashes, the LEDs are on and flashed off for a short time before returning to on:

Low Battery LED Blinks
Condition Solution
Three fast flashes Battery is below approximately 11.0V Land soon and recharge battery
Rapid flashing and wing waggle Battery is below approximately 10.25V Land immediately and recharge battery


Problem Solution
Continuous "SOS" LED code with Transmitter on Transmitter is not bound to receiver Bind receiver to transmitter
Motors do not spin Battery not plugged in Plug in battery
Transmitter is not on Turn on transmitter
Transmitter sticks not in neutral positions Release sticks, move throttle to minimum
Mode Switch not in Mode 1 Set Mode Switch to Mode 1
Sensors are not stabilized Set Quadshot on stationary surface for at least 10 seconds
Quadshot flips over upon takeoff Incorrect propellers installed Check and replace propellers
Motor(s) spinning backward Check motor and propeller directions
It is too windy Fly when there is less wind
Camera is too far away from wing surface Mount the camera closer to the wing surface
Camera is too heavy Remove camera
Quadshot constantly dives sharply Lids are not installed Install lids
Bottom motors/propellers damaged Check/replace motors/propellers
Propeller savers loose Tighten screws on propeller savers
Motor bells loose or out of adjustment Adjust motor bells
Camera is too heavy Remove camera
Quadshot tips over upon landing It is too windy Fly when there is less wind
A direction is held on a transmitter stick Center the sticks upon landing
Camera is too heavy Remove camera

Binding the Receiver to the Transmitter

Important.png Remove the propellers from the Quadshot before attempting to bind the receiver to the transmitter.

The Quadshot's receiver is bound (paired) with the transmitter to ensure it only receives commands from one pilot, even if there are other RC vehicles nearby. The Quadshot's radio transmitter and receiver are bound at the factory. If they become un-bound, the Quadshot will not leave Safe Mode and continuously blink the "SOS" code (a fast sequence of 3 short, 3 longer, and 3 short blinks).

The receiver is installed on the bottom of the left wing. It has a small orange LED to display its status:

Receiver LED as visible while installed in the Quadshot
Receiver removed from the Quadshot to show LED more clearly

When the receiver detects the transmitter it is bound with, its LED is lit (solid on). Otherwise, the LED light will blink. The most common causes for this are that the transmitter is switched off, the transmitter batteries are low, or that the transmitter is out of range (too far away from the receiver). However, if the transmitter is on, nearby, and has good batteries, then it may need to be bound with the receiver.

To bind the receiver and transmitter:

1. Check that the batteries in the transmitter are good by switching it on and verifying that the transmitter power LED is green. Replace the transmitter batteries if necessary.

2. Switch the transmitter OFF.

3. Disconnect the Quadshot's black connector from the BAT/BIND channel on the receiver. Note that the black/red/white cable has the white wire closest to the channel labels. It may be easier to perform this step after pulling the receiver out of the wing.

Important yellow.png Do not pull on the receiver's antenna to remove it from the wing, you may damage the antenna.
QS1 RX bind 004.jpg

4. To provide power to the receiver during the bind process, temporarily plug the black connector into any other channel, for example CH4. Make sure the white wire is closest to the channel label text:

QS1 RX bind 011.jpg

5. Plug the bind plug into the BAT/BIND channel:

QS1 RX bind 005.jpg

6. Plug in the Quadshot flight battery. The receiver's LED will blink quickly:

QS1 RX bind 012.jpg

7. Hold down the BIND button on the transmitter, and then turn on the transmitter while continuing to hold the BIND button:

QS1 RX bind 007.jpg
QS1 RX bind 008.jpg

The receiver's LED will begin to blink slowly. Release the transmitter BIND button only once this happens. The receiver and transmitter are now bound.

8. Switch the transmitter OFF.

9. Disconnect the flight battery.

10. Remove the bind plug.

11. Reconnect the black connector to the receiver BAT/BIND channel, again making sure the white wire is closest to the BAT/BIND channel label text.

12. Reinsert the receiver into the wing if you removed it during this procedure.

You can now verify that the receiver and transmitter are bound by reconnecting the flight battery and turning on the transmitter. The receiver LED will be lit (solid on).

Programming the Transmitter

The Quadshot transmitter settings can be loaded into the transmitter by connecting it to a PC running Windows with the supplied cable.

Important.png Programming the transmitter incorrectly can make the Quadshot uncontrollable - only use the supplied transmitter settings file.

1. Install the T6Config software from the supplied disc.

2. Downloadthe Quadshot transmitter settings file QS_Tx.zip and unzip it.

3. Connect the Quadshot transmitter to your PC with the supplied cable.

4. Power on the transmitter.

5. Start the T6Config program.

6. Verify that the T6Config program is communicating with the transmitter by moving the transmitter sticks. The green channel visualizer bars at the top of the T6Config window should move.

7. Click the Open button.

8. Select the unzipped QS_Tx file and click OK.

9. Quit the T6Config program.

For more information about the transmitter and transmitter settings, see the Mocha Transmitter Manual.

Motor Adjustments

To remove excess (>1mm) play between the motor bell housing (rotor) and the rest of the motor:

1. Loosen the shaft set screw with a 1.25mm (0.050") allen wrench.

QS1 kit 160.jpg

2. Place the motor upright on a hard flat surface and press the motor bell down lightly to lower the bell on the shaft.

QS1 kit 161.jpg

Use caution to avoid damaging the small retaining clip on the rear end of the shaft.

QS1 kit 162.jpg

3. Tighten the shaft set screw and recheck the motor for excess play.

Important yellow.png Do not remove all play between the bell and rest of the motor, as this can cause the motor to overheat or seize.

Academy of Model Aeronautics National Model Aircraft Safety Code

Effective January 1, 2011


A model aircraft is a non-human-carrying aircraft capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere. It may not exceed limitations of this code and is intended exclusively for sport, recreation and/or competition. All model flights must be conducted in accordance with this safety code and any additional rules specific to the flying site.

1. Model aircraft will not be flown:

(a) In a careless or reckless manner.

(b) At a location where model aircraft activities are prohibited.

2. Model aircraft pilots will:

(a) Yield the right of way to all man carrying aircraft.

(b) See and avoid all aircraft and a spotter must be used when appropriate. (AMA Document #540-D-See and Avoid Guidance.)

(c) Not fly higher than approximately 400 feet above ground level within three (3) miles of an airport, without notifying the airport operator.

(d) Not interfere with operations and traffic patterns at any airport, heliport or seaplane base except where there is a mixed use agreement.

(e) Not exceed a takeoff weight, including fuel, of 55 pounds unless in compliance with the AMA Large Model Aircraft program. (AMA Document 520-A)

(f) Ensure the aircraft is identified with the name and address or AMA number of the owner on the inside or affixed to the outside of the model aircraft. (This does not apply to model aircraft flown indoors).

(g) Not operate aircraft with metal-blade propellers or with gaseous boosts except for helicopters operated under the provisions of AMA Document #555.

(h) Not operate model aircraft while under the influence of alcohol or while using any drug which could adversely affect the pilot’s ability to safely control the model.

(i) Not operate model aircraft carrying pyrotechnic devices which explode or burn, or any device which propels a projectile or drops any object that creates a hazard to persons or property.


  • Free Flight fuses or devices that burn producing smoke and are securely attached to the model aircraft during flight.
  • Rocket motors (using solid propellant) up to a G-series size may be used provided they remain attached to the model during flight. Model rockets may be flown in accordance with the National Model Rocketry Safety Code but may not be launched from model aircraft.
  • Officially designated AMA Air Show Teams (AST) are authorized to use devices and practices as defined within the Team AMA Program Document (AMA Document #718).

(j) Not operate a turbine-powered aircraft, unless in compliance with the AMA turbine regulations (AMA Document #510-A).

3. Model aircraft will not be flown in AMA sanctioned events, air shows or model demonstrations unless:

(a) The aircraft, control system and pilot skills have successfully demonstrated all maneuvers intended or anticipated prior to the specific event.

(b) An inexperienced pilot is assisted by an experienced pilot.

4. When and where required by rule, helmets must be properly worn and fastened. They must be OSHA, DOT, ANSI, SNELL or NOCSAE approved or comply with comparable standards.


1. All pilots shall avoid flying directly over unprotected people, vessels, vehicles or structures and shall avoid endangerment of life and property of others.

2. A successful radio equipment ground-range check in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations will be completed before the first flight of a new or repaired model aircraft.

3. At all flying sites a safety line(s) must be established in front of which all flying takes place (AMA Document #706-Recommended Field Layout):

(a) Only personnel associated with flying the model aircraft are allowed at or in front of the safety line.

(b) At air shows or demonstrations, a straight safety line must be established.

(c) An area away from the safety line must be maintained for spectators.

(d) Intentional flying behind the safety line is prohibited.

4. RC model aircraft must use the radio-control frequencies currently allowed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Only individuals properly licensed by the FCC are authorized to operate equipment on Amateur Band frequencies.

5. RC model aircraft will not operate within three (3) miles of any pre-existing flying site without a frequency-management agreement (AMA Documents #922-Testing for RF Interference; #923- Frequency Management Agreement)

6. With the exception of events flown under official AMA Competition Regulations, excluding takeoff and landing, no powered model may be flown outdoors closer than 25 feet to any individual, except for the pilot and the pilot's helper(s) located at the flight line.

7. Under no circumstances may a pilot or other person touch a model aircraft in flight while it is still under power, except to divert it from striking an individual. This does not apply to model aircraft flown indoors.

8. RC night flying requires a lighting system providing the pilot with a clear view of the model’s attitude and orientation at all times.

9. The pilot of a RC model aircraft shall:

(a) Maintain control during the entire flight, maintaining visual contact without enhancement other than by corrective lenses prescribed for the pilot.

(b) Fly using the assistance of a camera or First-Person View (FPV) only in accordance with the procedures outlined in AMA Document #550.

Contact Information

FCC Statement

Modifications and changes not approved by Transition Robotics, Inc. may void the user’s authority to use the equipment.

Warranty and Repair Policy

Please see the TRI Quadshot Store Refund Policy and TRI Quadshot Store Terms of Service for more information.