Kopi Luwak User Manual

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Thank you for purchasing a Kopi Luwak. This Quadshot has been hand built and test flown by the team at Transition Robotics.

The Quadshot uses the Paparazzi UAV project software. Please visit http://paparazzi.enac.fr for more information.

Important.png Please read the entire manual before using the Quadshot. Not adhering to these instructions may result in damage to the Quadshot or serious injury.


The Quadshot is not recommended for children under 14 years. This is not a toy.



Note about "Modes"

This manual assumes the use of a Mode 2 transmitter - e.g., the throttle control is on the left and the pitch control on the right.

All uses of the word "mode" from here on are NOT in reference to the different channel mappings for transmitter sticks. This is in reference to the three different flight modes the Quadshot is capable of.


What's in the Box

The Quadshot Kopi Luwak includes:

  • 1x Quadshot airframe (wing with four motor controllers, two servos, two Spektrum 2.4GHz DSM2 satellite receivers, xBee module on serial carrier, and Lisa/L board with Aspirin IMU mounted on flat carrier)
  • 1x Gumstix Overo AirSTORM COM and accessories
  • 2x Winglets
  • 4x Pylon assemblies (pylon, motor, motor clip, propeller saver, 2x M3 propeller saver screws)
  • 3x 8045 normal-rotation propellers
  • 3x 8045R reverse-rotation propellers
  • 1x Lithium-polymer flight battery
  • 1x Battery bay lid
  • 1x Spare receiver receiver bay cover
  • 1x Parts bag containing:
    • 1x xBee module
    • 1x USB xBee carrier board
    • 1x Kopi Luwak receiver bind plug
    • 4x Propeller saver rubber bands
    • 1x cyanoacrylate glue


Quadshot Kopi Luwak showing electronics enclosure - flight battery at top; Lisa/L with Aspirin IMU mounted on flat carrier and LED driver board at lower left; xBee module mounted on serial carrier at lower right.

The technical specifications of the Quadshot are listed here.

Items Required for Flight

  • Battery charger suitable for the flight battery
  • 2.4GHz Spektrum® DSM2 or compatible transmitter with 6 or more channels

Basic Terms

The three ways of rotating an aircraft are called pitch, roll, and yaw. Starting with an aircraft in level forward flight:

  • Pitch is rotating around a horizontal line connecting the wingtips. When aircraft dive down to the ground or pull up to gain altitude, they are changing pitch. You pitch your head up and down by nodding 'yes' up and down.
  • Roll is rotating around a line connecting the nose of the aircraft to the tail. You roll your head by touching an ear to your shoulder (or by doing a cartwheel).
  • Yaw is rotating around a vertical line to change the compass direction the aircraft is flying in. You yaw your head by shaking it 'no' left and right.


Given that the Quadshot can both hover like a helicopter and pitch over onto the wing and fly like an airplane, it isn't always obvious what to call the "front" or the "top." For sanity's sake, we named the parts of the Quadshot as if it were flying like an airplane. Therefore:

  • The Front of the Quadshot is the end with the motors and the propellers, i.e., towards the leading edge of the wing.
  • The Rear is the opposite end, i.e., towards the trailing edge of the wing, or the end where the black plastic landing feet protrude from the pylons.
  • The Top is the flat surface of the wing the battery and brain doors are built into. The top pylons are mounted closer to each other. The top LEDs are blue.
  • The Bottom is the opposite side - the bottom pylons are mounted farther apart from each other. The bottom LEDs are white.
  • The Port or Left side has RED LEDs.
  • The Starboard or Right side has GREEN LEDs.

Getting Started

Install the Pylons

The pylons on the Quadshot are not permanently attached; in the event of a crash the pylons may pop out, which can help reduce damage to the Quadshot.

To install the pylons, place one hand under the pylon socket, line up the clip on the bottom of the pylon with the spar, and press the pylon straight down onto the spar until it clicks into place. You should a hear a pop as it locks in. Pull on the pylon straight out to make sure that it is locked in. The four pylons are identical and interchangeable.

Pylon attach 1.jpg

Make sure motor wires lie in their channels.

Pylon attach 2.jpg

Line up the pylon clip with the spar.

Pylon attach 3.jpg

Another perspective.

Pylon attach 4.jpg

Place one hand under the pylon socket, and press the pylon straight down onto the spar until it clicks into place.

Connect the Motor Controllers

Each motor is controlled by an Electronic Speed Controller, or ESC. To connect each motor, plug in the bullet connector on each of the three motor wires into the matching connector on the ESC.

Important.png Do not mount the propellers yet. A test must be done first to check the motor rotation direction. This is described under Before the First Flight.

Attach the Winglets

Important green.png The winglets are identical and are interchangeable.


QS1 winglet 01.jpg

Check the fit of the winglets onto the ends of the wings...

QS1 winglet 03.jpg

...and note how the winglet keys onto the end of the wing.

QS1 winglet 05.jpg

Working quickly on one winglet at a time, apply a thin coat of the CA glue provided onto the winglet as shown.

QS1 winglet 04.jpg

Press and hold the winglet onto the end of the wing for 15-30 seconds to allow the glue to adhere. Repeat with the other winglet.


Important.png Cyanoacrylate glue is an eye irritant. Bonds skin in seconds. Contains cyanoacrylate ester. This adhesive gives a virtually immediate, strong bond: apply only to surfaces to be bonded. Do not get adhesive on your skin or other parts of your body, or that of others. In case of body contact, flush with water. Seek medical attention for any eye or internal contact.

Charge the Flight Battery

The Kopi Luwak includes a lithium polymer flight battery, which allows for flight times of about 6 to 15 minutes, depending on conditions, payload and throttle settings. The flight battery must be charged before the first flight.

To charge the battery:

  • After flight, allow the battery to cool to room temperature before charging.
  • Place the charger and battery on a heat resistant surface.
  • Charge the flight battery at a rate no higher than 2.2A (1C).

Do not leave the battery unattended while charging.

Important.png

Overcharging the battery, or charging a damaged or hot battery, may result in a fire! Do not charge batteries above 120 F (49 C) or below 40 F (4 C)! Only charge the fight battery with a charger designed for lithium polymer batteries - using an incorrect charger may result in a fire! If the battery pack balloons or expands, stop use immediately! Always store batteries in a fireproof container!

The Quadshot and Your Radio Transmitter System

Before flying the Quadshot, first get familiar with how the Quadshot responds to your radio transmitter.

The Quadshot requires a transmitter with 6 or more channels. These are defined by Paparazzi to be:

Channel Number Definition Name Description
0 RADIO_THROTTLE Throttle
1 RADIO_ROLL Roll
2 RADIO_PITCH Pitch
3 RADIO_YAW Yaw
4 RADIO_GEAR Flight mode switch
5 RADIO_FLAP Stick sensitivity switch
5 RADIO_AUX1 Not used
6 RADIO_AUX2 Not used
7 RADIO_AUX3 Not used
8 RADIO_AUX4 Not used
9 RADIO_AUX5 Not used
10 RADIO_AUX6 Not used
11 RADIO_AUX7 Not used

In this manual, it is assumed that the throttle and yaw stick is on the left, and the pitch and roll stick is on the right. The Flight Mode 3-position switch is on the left, and the Stick Sensitivity 3-position switch is on the right.

Tx.jpg

Radio transmitter with the switches labeled.

Transmitter Switches

The switches change the way the Quadshot responds to the control sticks.

The Mode Switch

The Channel 6 switch (on the left front face of the example transmitter, just above the left stick) switches between flight modes. From top to bottom, the switch settings are:

  • Mode 1 - "Helicopter" mode. Used for takeoff, hover, horizontal flight, recovery, and landing.
  • Mode 2 - "Trainer airplane" mode. Used for cruising forward flight.
  • Mode 3 - "Aerobatic airplane" mode. Used for aerobatics.

Ch. 5: The Stick Sensitivity Switch

The Channel 5 switch (on the right front face of the example transmitter, just above the right stick) changes how sensitive the control sticks are to small movements. This is typically referred to in RC aircraft as 'exponential' or 'expo.' From top to bottom, the switch settings are:

  • Expo 1 - most sensitive. If a control stick is moved halfway, the Quadshot will react with half of maximum authority. If the stick is moved all the way, the Quadshot will react with maximum authority.
  • Expo 2 - less sensitive. If a control stick is moved halfway, the Quadshot will react with less than half of maximum authority. If a stick is moved all the way, the Quadshot will still react with maximum authority.
  • Expo 3 - least sensitive. If a control stick is moved halfway, the Quadshot will react with even less authority than Setting 2. If a stick is moved all the way, the Quadshot will still react with maximum authority.

Beginning pilots may find that using Expo 2 or Expo 3 makes the Quadshot easier to fly, since it will not react as quickly to smaller stick movements.

The D/R A and D/R B Switches

THe D/R A and D/R B switches are not used by the Mocha, and have no effect on the controls out of the box. D/R stands for Dual Rates, and can be programmed to change the effective range of the control sticks. Please see the Mocha transmitter manual for more information.

Transmitter Main Control Sticks

The main control sticks commands the Quadshot to move. Small stick movements can have a big effect, so be conservative until you get used to the controls!

As mentioned above in the Basic Terms section, what constitutes the "top" and "front" of the Quadshot aren't as obvious as they are on regular airplanes and helicopters. This also means that "roll" and "yaw" aren't as obvious either.

To clear things up, here is a photo of the Quadshot transmitter with the yaw stick highlighted:

Tx yaw.jpg

Transmitter with the yaw axis highlighted.


When hovering (Mode 1), with the propellers pointing up at the sky and the top lids facing towards you, imagine that it is helicopter with the nose pointed away from you. If a yaw (spin) right input is made, the helicopter nose will point to the right. If a yaw left input is made, the nose of the helicopter will point to the left. It is the same with the Quadshot.

QS hover helo.jpg

Quadshot HOVER mode Front-to-Back view with nose and tail direction.


In forward flight (Modes 2 and 3, and Flight Mode 1 when pitched over as described below in Mode 1: Forward Flight), the Quadshot wing should be thought of as an airplane wing, with the nose of the airplane towards the propellers, and the tail towards the landing feet. If a yaw right input is made, the Airplane nose yaws right and vice-versa.

QS forward plane.jpg

Quadshot FORWARD flight modes Top-Down view with nose and tail direction.


We have found that for all but "dyed-in-the-wool" pilots that fly only helicopters or only airplanes, this is actually very intuitive, and simpler than it seems. This is because while roll and yaw change places with respect to the Quadshot as it is flying around, they actually stay the same with respect to the pilot standing on the ground! In other words, the right stick always moves the Quadshot to its left or right, and the left stick will always rotate the Quadshot to its left or right, regardless of what it has to do to accomplish the movement.

Hovering Flight (Helicopter) Controls

Moving the left stick up and down
throttles the motors up and down.

Tx throttle.jpg
QS 3.jpg
Quadshot top view showing throttle input reaction.

Moving the left stick left and right
yaws (spins) the Quadshot left and right as if it were a helicopter.

Tx yaw.jpg
QS 4.jpg
Quadshot rear view (hovering above) showing helicopter yaw input reaction.

Moving the right stick up and down
pitches the Quadshot forward and back.

Tx pitch.jpg
QS 2.jpg
Quadshot top view showing pitch input reaction.

Moving the right stick left and right
rolls the Quadshot left and right as if it were a helicopter.

Tx roll.jpg
QS 1.jpg
Quadshot top view showing helicopter roll input reaction.

Forward Flight (Airplane) Controls

Note: The controls are the same for forward flight in Mode 1, Mode 2, and Mode 3.

Moving the left stick up and down
throttles the motors up and down.

Tx throttle.jpg
QS 3.jpg
Quadshot top view showing throttle input reaction.

Moving the left stick left and right
yaws (spins) the Quadshot left and right as if it were an airplane.

Tx yaw.jpg
QS 1a.jpg
Quadshot top view showing airplane yaw input reaction.

Moving the right stick up and down
pitches the Quadshot up and down.

Tx pitch.jpg
QS 2.jpg
Quadshot top view showing pitch input reaction.

Moving the right stick left and right
rolls the Quadshot left and right as if it were an airplane.

Tx roll.jpg
QS 4.jpg
Quadshot rear view (flying away) showing airplane roll input reaction.

Before Each Flight

Check Pylons

Check that the pylons are locked in place by pressing each pylon into the wing. If you hear a click, the pylon was not in all of the way.

Check Transmitter Batteries

Ensure your transmitter's batteries are not at a low state of charge before each flight.

Check Flight Battery

Check that the flight battery is fully charged by connecting it to a voltmeter or to your battery charger. A fully charged 3-cell lithium battery will read 12.6 volts.

Install Flight Battery

To install the flight battery, remove the battery compartment lid, marked by a battery symbol, by pressing down on the top edge.

The battery fits best with the main leads (the two biggest wires with the yellow connector) in the bottom right of the battery compartment.

  • pic

Wrap the hook and loop strap around the battery and secure tightly.

The Quadshot should be placed upright on a level surface when plugging in the flight battery and not held by hand. Connect the battery to turn on the Quadshot. After plugging in the battery, the Quadshot should be left untouched while the lights flash. This is to allow the sensors to initialize. If the Quadshot is moved, initialization can take more time or be prevented from completing correctly. Moving the the Quadshot during initialization can cause erratic flight or crashes until the power is cycled. After the LEDs have stopped blinking, put the wires in the recess above the battery. The lid will not close properly if the battery connector is placed above the battery strap. The connector is designed to fit to the left of the battery strap.

[[File:Batt box.jpg|300x300px|center[[ Installed flight battery on a Quadshot with the battery compartment lid open.

Replace the battery lid by placing the bottom tabs in first and then by pushing on the top to secure it in place.

Leave Safe Mode

Once the Quadshot is turned on, it is in a “safe” mode, which means the motors will not spin and the LEDs will flash. To leave safe mode, these conditions must be met:

1. The Quadshot has been on and sitting still for more than 10 seconds.

2. The transmitter is on.

3. All four of the transmitter trim tabs are centered.

4. The left stick on the transmitter is in the bottom-center position.

5. The right stick is in the center position.

6. The Mode Switch is in the highest, or Mode 1, position.

When these criteria are met, the LEDs on the Quadshot will stop flashing and remain on.

Slow blinking: the IMU (inertial measurement unit) is aligning. The Quadshot will not fly straight until the IMU is aligned.

Fast blinking: the transmitter has not yet met the conditions stated above.


Before the First Flight

Check Motor Spin Directions

Depending on how it is connected, the motor controller can spin the motor in either direction. However, it is critical that each motor spins the correct direction. Perform this check after any time a motor may have been disconnected from its motor controller.

Important.png Attempting to fly with any motor spinning the wrong way will result in erratic flight and loss of control. You must check the motor spin directions after connecting the motors to the motor controllers.

Perform this test without the propellers installed:

Slowly throttle up the motors until they just start spinning.
When viewed from above, motors A1 and B2 spin clockwise while A2 and B1 spin counterclockwise.
Front view motors.png

If a motor is spinning the wrong way, switch any two of the wires running between the motor and motor controller - that is:

Disconnect any two motor wires from the controller
Plug the first motor wire into the second controller connector
Plug the second motor wire into the first controller connector
Repeat the motor spin test until you are sure that all four motors are spinning the correct directions.
Important.png Disconnect the flight battery until you are ready to fly.

Install Propellers

The Quadshot uses two reverse-spin propellers and two normal-spin propellers. The propellers are labelled near their center hubs. Reverse-spin propellers are labelled 8045R and normal-spin propellers are labelled 8045. When installed correctly, the lettering near the propeller hubs is on the front of each propeller (facing away from the motors).

Reverse-spin propellers are used on motors A1 and B2.
Normal-spin propellers are used on motors A2 and B1.
Prop marking.jpg

A reverse-spin propeller.

Front view.png

Correct propeller placement and motor spin directions.


To install the propellers:

Prop attach 1.jpg

Place the propeller on the prop saver with the lettering up.

Prop attach 3.jpg

Grasp the motor by the chrome ring with one hand.

Prop attach 2.jpg

Loop the rubber O-ring under one screw,
over the propeller, and around the other screw.

Prop attach 4.jpg

Installed propeller.

Flying the Quadshot

Takeoff

The Quadshot takes off vertically, like a helicopter. before it can fly forward like a plane. Use only Mode 1 to take off, and not Mode 2 or Mode 3. Use a flat and level surface for take off. Always take off from the ground and not a table or from someone's hand. Always place the Quadshot with the motors facing up.

The Quadshot has a lot of reserve power when a camera is not installed. Because of this, takeoff requires very little throttle, somewhere in the range of 10 - 15%.

Important.png If the Quadshot ever tips over or lands on the motors/propellers, immediately reduce the throttle to zero or the motors and ESCs will be damaged.

Smooth takeoffs take some practice - adding throttle too slowly can cause the Quadshot to skitter along the ground, where it might catch on something and tip over. On the other hand, adding throttle too quickly causes the Quadshot to rise very quickly, and you may lose control.

To take off, leave Safe Mode as described above. Slowly raise the throttle until all four propellers just begin to spin. Then, add enough extra throttle (perhaps 5-10%) to cause the Quadshot to 'pop' a short distance up into the air, and then reduce throttle a bit to settle into a stable hover. Above all, don't overreact - the Quadshot can stabilize itself as long as you give it enough throttle to stay in the air, but if you cut the throttle completely, gravity will win!

Once out of Safe Mode but before takeoff, don't move the other control sticks, since this would tell the Quadshot to pitch, roll, or yaw while on the ground.

Mode 1: Hovering and Forward Flight

In Mode 1, the Quadshot will maintain a hover attitude when no control inputs are made. It will ascend and descend depending on where the throttle is set. It will NOT stay in place if there is any wind. It will drift with the wind and only maintain a straight-up orientation.

If at any time while in Mode 1 the sticks are released, the Quadshot will return to a straight up hover orientation as quickly as possible. This is useful for emergency situations, such as if you are unsure which way the Quadshot is facing, or are about to crash. It is best to perform this with the throttle set slightly above hover power. If the throttle is set too high, the Quadshot may not have enough reserve power remaining to recover. If the throttle is set below hover, the Quadshot will immediately descend.

As the right stick is pushed forward in Mode 1 the Quadshot will pitch forward and fly "on the wing" like an airplane. Pushing the stick all of the way forwards will cause the Quadshot to fly horizontally. Because the Quadshot has a symmetric airfoil, the wing does not generate any lift when horizontal, so the Quadshot will descend, even at high throttle. To maintain or gain altitude, the wing must not be pitched all of the way over.

Centering pitch will cause the Quadshot to return to a vertical orientation.

Pulling the right stick back has the same effect, but the Quadshot will pitch backward and fly "on the wing" upside-down.

While flying on the wing in Mode 1, the yaw and roll controls will gradually change from helicopter to airplane as discussed above.

Mode 2: Forward Flight

While in Mode 2, the Quadshot will fly with its nose rotated eight degrees above horizontal unless given other control inputs (in other words, its angle of attack will be eight degrees). This generates enough lift for general flying. The Quadshot will NOT maintain altitude or direction - it will ascend and descend depending on where the throttle is set and will drift with the wind. It will only try to maintain a level orientation.

The Quadshot will also make coordinated turns in Mode 2 when roll (right stick left and right) is used. This means that the Quadshot will automatically add in a small amount of upward pitch, and yaw in the same direction as the turn. This makes turns are more graceful and require less input. Some coordination is still required in certain situations, such as at high angles of attack or high speeds.

To switch to Mode 2, first fly up to at least 15-20 meters (50-65 feet). Point the Quadshot straight up as if in hover and set the throttle such that the Quadshot is hovering or rising slowly. Flip the Mode Switch to Mode 2, or center position, and the Quadshot will automatically transition into forward flight.

It is recommended to reduce the throttle a small amount upon switching to Mode 2. The Quadshot requires less throttle to fly on the wing than to hover. Because of this, the Quadshot will fly very fast after transitioning into Mode 2 if the throttle is not reduced.

In general, make turns in Mode 2 by primarily using the roll stick (left and right on the right stick), and gain or lose altitude by primarily increasing or decreasing the throttle. Use small amounts of the pitch stick (up and down on the right stick) to adjust altitude and counteract wind.

If at any time while in Mode 2 the sticks are released the Quadshot will return to level flight. However, it will take a few seconds for the Quadshot to level off if it is descending rapidly. If you do not pull up, the Quadshot may still crash.

While in Mode 2, the Quadshot will not pitch up more than vertical and will not roll more than 90 degrees.

If at any time the Mode Switch is set to Mode 1 while in Mode 2, the Quadshot will immediately return to hover orientation. However, do not throttle up the motors much higher than what it takes to hover or they may not have enough remaining power to recover from a bad situation. This is again very useful for emergency situations, such as if the Quadshot were about to crash.

Mode 3: Aerobatics

While in Mode 3, the Quadshot will try to maintain whatever orientation you put it in. It will not recover from upset situations or coordinate turns, and will allow you to command loops, rolls, and spins.

To switch to Mode 3, flip the Mode Switch to Mode 3, the lowest position. There will be no visible change to the Quadshot orientation once Mode 3 is activated.

Remember: the Quadshot flies without returning to a neutral attitude when in Mode 3.

If at any time the Mode Switch is set to Mode 1 while in Mode 3, the Quadshot will immediately return to hover orientation.

Landing

The best method to descend quickly is to fully pitch forwards or backwards in Mode 1 with the throttle low. As the Quadshot approaches the ground, release pitch slowly and throttle up to a hover throttle setting at the same time.

  • 3 pics: hover high alt, push over mid alt, hover low alt

The Quadshot can also descend vertically in Mode 1 from a hover. It can appear to be out of control during a quick vertical descent. This is because the airflow over the wing is reversed, causing the elevons to have the opposite effect of the desired controls. However, the motors overpower this effect.

To descend vertically, use a throttle position just below hover and descend slowly.

One method of landing is to descend as slowly as possible while maintaining position to avoid catching the landing gear on something and tipping over the Quadshot. This can be difficult as the Quadshot approaches the ground; the air becomes more turbulent the lower the Quadshot gets.

Another method is to get the Quadshot in a stable hover a few inches above the landing spot and kill the throttle. This will drop the Quadshot right on target and minimize the chance of breaking a propeller if it tips over, since the motors will not be turning when it lands. However, this method can potentially be damaging in other ways if used on a hard surface, such as pavement.

Important.png If the Quadshot ever tips over or lands on the motors/propellers, immediately reduce the throttle to zero or the motors and ESCs will be damaged.


Low Voltage Alert

The Quadshot comes programmed with a low voltage alert. When the battery drops to a low voltage level, the Quadshot will flash its LEDs and 'waggle' its wings. You will see the Quadshot roll back and forth a small amount about four times per second. Sets of waggles will happen four times, about five seconds apart. During this time there is enough battery capacity remaining to fly the Quadshot nearer to you and land. If you see the Quadshot repeat the waggle warning a second time, you should land immediately! If you see the Quadshot repeat the warning a third time, you will soon lose power!

Important.png Over-discharging the battery may damage it. Do not attempt to fly the Quadshot back to you after seeing a second warning - descend and land immediately.

The Quadshot is compatible with many hobby lithium-polymer battery monitors that beep loudly when the battery is low. Typically these connect to the white battery balance connector, and will fit inside the electronics enclosure with the beeper taped or glued to align with the provided hole. Follow the manufacturer's directions for use.

  • pic

Flying With a Camera

Only attempt flying with a camera once you are comfortable flying the Quadshot.

Camera Installation

Important.png Do not use a camera that weighs more than 7 ounces or 200 grams. If a heavier camera is used, the possibility of a crash is much higher. The lighter the camera, the better the Quadshot flies. The Quadshot is mainly controlled by the motors. If a high throttle setting is needed to hover, there is little motor power remaining to control the Quadshot.

To install a camera, remove the battery lid. Locate the supplied ¼”-20 bolt and insert it into the hole located at the bottom-center of the battery compartment. Using a coin or flat-bladed screwdriver, mount your camera to the bottom side of the Quadshot, opposite the battery door. Cameras should be attached so they are snug but not overly tight, which could damage the Quadshot or camera.

Once installed, rotate the propellers by hand and make sure that they do not hit the camera. If they do, the camera must be reoriented so that the propellers do not hit the camera. A camera this far forward also greatly impacts the stability of the Quadshot. Avoid mounting a camera that adds a lot of weight ahead or behind the camera mounting bolt.

Flying With a Camera

With a camera installed, vertical takeoff will require you to pull back on the right stick a small amount (pitching the Quadshot up) to counteract the camera's weight. If this is not done, the Quadshot will fly forward as it leaves the ground. However, once hovering, the Quadshot will compensate for the camera's weight and maintain level orientation without added pitch commands.

In general, the Quadshot will require more throttle, pitch up, or a combination of both to maintain level flight due to the added weight. This is most pronounced during the transition from Mode 1 to Mode 2.

Be aware that excess payload weight will cause the battery to drain more quickly and the motors and motor controllers to heat up. Continued flight with a heavy payload will damage the battery, motors, and/or motor controllers.

GoPro: Mounting a GoPro camera requires using its case and the tripod mount. The case is adjustable in pitch. If the camera is tilted too far forward or back when mounted to the Quadshot, the balance of the aircraft will be upset. We suggest a maximum tilt of about 45 degrees up or down from horizontal when the Quadshot is flying horizontally forward. Any more than this may make the Quadshot difficult to or impossible to fly.

Removing Pylons

To remove the pylons, first disconnect the motor wires that connect it to the ESC. Then tip the pylon to the side until you feel it pop loose and pull out. Note that excessively installing and removing the pylons will cause their clip to wear and the pylon to attach more loosely.

If desired, the pylons can be glued in permanently. Lightly sand the square carbon spar and the mating foam and plastic surfaces on each pylon before gluing with medium or thick (gap-filling) cyanoacrylate (CA) glue.

Repairs

Replacing Propellers

Replace a propeller if it is bent, nicked, cracked or broken. Do not mix propellers of different brands, makes, or dimensions. The propellers that come with the Quadshot are 8 inches in diameter, have a pitch of 4.5 inches, and have 5mm center holes. The prop saver can be flipped over to accomodate propellers with 7mm center holes.

Foam and Plastic Repairs

The Quadshot is made out of Expanded PolyOlefin (EPO) foam. It is recommended that you use either medium viscosity CyanoAcrylate (CA, super glue) with a catalyst (kicker), 3M 4693H contact cement, two-part epoxy, or Gorilla Glue to repair foam on the Quadshot. It is recommended that you repair the plastic with either epoxy or CA. For small dents, creases and crushed foam, pouring boiling water on or steaming the damaged foam can help restore it to its original shape, to some extent.

Motor Adjustment

In the event of a crash, the motors are usually the first things to hit the ground. Check the motors to make sure they are clean and free of foreign objects, rotate freely, and don't have bent motor shafts. Check the motor shaft adjustment by gently pulling on the motor bell housing away from the rest of the motor (e.g., in the direction of flight). There should be little to no play. If the motor bell rises more than 1mm (about 1/32") above the rest of the motor, then it must be adjusted or the motor will no longer rotate with full power or speed, and may stop rotating completely in mid-flight.

To adjust the motor shaft, remove the propeller, disconnect the motor from the motor controller, remove the motor mount clip, and remove the motor from the pylon.

Loosen the set screw at the top of the chrome bell by one turn using a .050" hex key. Do not remove this screw. Place the rear end of the motor on a hard surface and gently press down on the chrome bell until it stops. Do not compress the parts together any further. Do not use a sudden, jerking motion. Check to make sure that there is no more than 1mm of movement. Re-tighten the set screw at the top of the bell.

Post-Crash Checklists

After a minor crash make sure to check that:

The pylons are fully locked in by pushing them into their sockets.
The propellers are properly mounted and not bent or broken.
The winglets are not loose.
The battery is secured tightly by the strap.

After a major crash also make sure to check that:

The motors are relatively straight in the pylons.
The motors are not out of adjustment.
The motor mounts are not broken.
The pylons are not overly loose when connected to the spar.
The hinges are not ripped.
The electronics frame is glued to the foam.
The battery is not damaged.
The motors are connected to the motor controllers.

If a motor is disconnected from its motor controller and/or a propeller is replaced, check that:

The motors spin in the correct directions.
The correct propeller is installed on each motor.

Flying Tips

Each time before you fly:

  • Check that the battery in the plane is fully charged.
  • Check that the transmitter batteries are fresh.
  • Check that the pylons are fully seated and secured to the wing.

Fly the Quadshot in a wide open area. Do not fly near trees, poles, streets, wires, buildings, or people. Determine local laws and ordinances before choosing a location to fly the Quadshot.

It is not recommended to fly the Quadshot at more than 75% power when a camera is not attached. The motors are what control the Quadshot and at higher and higher speeds, the motors have less and less control authority which makes it harder to fly and stabilize.

Dual Rates

Dual rates are not recommended. Changing the dual rates will change the maximum allowed pitch and airplane yaw/quadcopter roll angles. For instance, if the pitch rates are lowered to 50%, the Quadshot will only be able to pitch forward by 45 degrees from hover when in Mode 1.

Exponential

It is not recommended to use exponential if you are to use your own computer radio as there are already exponential settings coded into Lia.

LED Flash Codes

LED Flash Codes
Problem Solution
Double blink Lia is aligning Wait
SOS (Three fast, three slow, three fast) Transmitter is not on or bound Turn on transmitter
Rapid flashing Transmitter does not meet safe mode requirements Neutralize sticks, zero throttle, center trims, set to Mode 1
Lia cannot stabilize Unplug and reconnect battery
Slow flashing Battery is below 11.0V Land soon and recharge battery
Rapid flashing and wing waggle Battery is below 10.25V Land immediately and recharge battery

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting
Problem Solution
Motors do not spin Battery not plugged in Plug in battery
Transmitter is not on Turn on transmitter
Transmitter sticks not in neutral positions Neutralize sticks
Mode Switch not in Mode 1 Set Mode Switch to Mode 1
Lia is not stabilized Set Quadshot on stationary surface for at least 10 seconds
Quadshot flips over upon takeoff Incorrect propellers installed Check and replace propellers
Motor(s) spinning backward Check motor and propeller directions
It is too windy Fly when there is less wind
Camera is too far away from wing surface Mount the camera closer to the wing surface
Camera is too heavy Remove camera
Quadshot constantly dives sharply Lids are not installed Install lids
Bottom motors/propellers damaged Check/replace motors/propellers
Propeller savers loose Tighten screws on propeller savers
Motor bells loose or out of adjustment Adjust motor bells
Camera is too heavy Remove camera
Quadshot tips over upon landing It is too windy Fly when there is less wind
A direction is held on a transmitter stick Center the sticks upon landing
Camera is too heavy Remove camera

Academy of Model Aeronautics National Model Aircraft Safety Code

Effective January 1, 2011

GENERAL

A model aircraft is a non-human-carrying aircraft capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere. It may not exceed limitations of this code and is intended exclusively for sport, recreation and/or competition. All model flights must be conducted in accordance with this safety code and any additional rules specific to the flying site.

1. Model aircraft will not be flown:

(a) In a careless or reckless manner.

(b) At a location where model aircraft activities are prohibited.

2. Model aircraft pilots will:

(a) Yield the right of way to all man carrying aircraft.

(b) See and avoid all aircraft and a spotter must be used when appropriate. (AMA Document #540-D-See and Avoid Guidance.)

(c) Not fly higher than approximately 400 feet above ground level within three (3) miles of an airport, without notifying the airport operator.

(d) Not interfere with operations and traffic patterns at any airport, heliport or seaplane base except where there is a mixed use agreement.

(e) Not exceed a takeoff weight, including fuel, of 55 pounds unless in compliance with the AMA Large Model Aircraft program. (AMA Document 520-A)

(f) Ensure the aircraft is identified with the name and address or AMA number of the owner on the inside or affixed to the outside of the model aircraft. (This does not apply to model aircraft flown indoors).

(g) Not operate aircraft with metal-blade propellers or with gaseous boosts except for helicopters operated under the provisions of AMA Document #555.

(h) Not operate model aircraft while under the influence of alcohol or while using any drug which could adversely affect the pilot’s ability to safely control the model.

(i) Not operate model aircraft carrying pyrotechnic devices which explode or burn, or any device which propels a projectile or drops any object that creates a hazard to persons or property.

Exceptions:

  • Free Flight fuses or devices that burn producing smoke and are securely attached to the model aircraft during flight.
  • Rocket motors (using solid propellant) up to a G-series size may be used provided they remain attached to the model during flight. Model rockets may be flown in accordance with the National Model Rocketry Safety Code but may not be launched from model aircraft.
  • Officially designated AMA Air Show Teams (AST) are authorized to use devices and practices as defined within the Team AMA Program Document (AMA Document #718).

(j) Not operate a turbine-powered aircraft, unless in compliance with the AMA turbine regulations (AMA Document #510-A).

3. Model aircraft will not be flown in AMA sanctioned events, air shows or model demonstrations unless:

(a) The aircraft, control system and pilot skills have successfully demonstrated all maneuvers intended or anticipated prior to the specific event.

(b) An inexperienced pilot is assisted by an experienced pilot.

4. When and where required by rule, helmets must be properly worn and fastened. They must be OSHA, DOT, ANSI, SNELL or NOCSAE approved or comply with comparable standards.

RADIO CONTROL (RC)

1. All pilots shall avoid flying directly over unprotected people, vessels, vehicles or structures and shall avoid endangerment of life and property of others.

2. A successful radio equipment ground-range check in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations will be completed before the first flight of a new or repaired model aircraft.

3. At all flying sites a safety line(s) must be established in front of which all flying takes place (AMA Document #706-Recommended Field Layout):

(a) Only personnel associated with flying the model aircraft are allowed at or in front of the safety line.

(b) At air shows or demonstrations, a straight safety line must be established.

(c) An area away from the safety line must be maintained for spectators.

(d) Intentional flying behind the safety line is prohibited.

4. RC model aircraft must use the radio-control frequencies currently allowed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Only individuals properly licensed by the FCC are authorized to operate equipment on Amateur Band frequencies.

5. RC model aircraft will not operate within three (3) miles of any pre-existing flying site without a frequency-management agreement (AMA Documents #922-Testing for RF Interference; #923- Frequency Management Agreement)

6. With the exception of events flown under official AMA Competition Regulations, excluding takeoff and landing, no powered model may be flown outdoors closer than 25 feet to any individual, except for the pilot and the pilot's helper(s) located at the flight line.

7. Under no circumstances may a pilot or other person touch a model aircraft in flight while it is still under power, except to divert it from striking an individual. This does not apply to model aircraft flown indoors.

8. RC night flying requires a lighting system providing the pilot with a clear view of the model’s attitude and orientation at all times.

9. The pilot of a RC model aircraft shall:

(a) Maintain control during the entire flight, maintaining visual contact without enhancement other than by corrective lenses prescribed for the pilot.

(b) Fly using the assistance of a camera or First-Person View (FPV) only in accordance with the procedures outlined in AMA Document #550.

Contact Information

FCC Statement

Modifications and changes not approved by Transition Robotics, Inc. may void the user’s authority to use the equipment.

Warranty and Repair Policy

Please see the TRI Quadshot Store Refund Policy and TRI Quadshot Store Terms of Service for more information.